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OCCUPATIONAL SEGREGATION

Occupational segregation is the distribution of workers across and within occupations, based upon demographic characteristics, most often gender. Occupational segregation levels differ on a basis of perfect segregation and integration. Perfect segregation occurs where any given occupation employs only one group. Perfect integration, on the other hand, occurs where each group holds the same proportion of positions in an occupation as it holds in the labor force.

Women are also significantly underrepresented in decision-making positions such as legislators, senior officials and managers, but are overrepresented as domestic workers, positions that are characterized by low pay, long hours and lack of social protection.

Across all sectors and occupations, women on average earn less than men; in most countries, women in full-time jobs earn between 70 and 90 per cent of what men earn. Many developed countries show a long-term decline in the gender pay gap, but the trend is mixed in recent years.

To measure the occupational segregation across the states, we used the Duncan Segregation Index whichis a measure of occupational segregation based on gender that measures whether there is a larger than expected presence of one gender over another in a given occupation or labor force by identifying the percentage of employed women (or men) who would have to change occupations for the occupational distribution of men and women to be equal.

A Duncan Segregation Index value of 0 percent occurs when the share of women in every occupation is the same as women's share of employment as a whole. In other words, 0 indicates perfect gender integration within the workforce, while a value of 100 percent indicates complete gender segregation within the workforce.

Adamawa with a score of 12 percent, is ranked number 1 when it comes to occupational segregation, as both men and women are more equally distributed across major occupation groups as compared to Niger with a score of 66 percent indicated poor integration for women across major occupational groups.
2016 MIND THE GAP REPORT RANKINGS FOR OCCUPATIONAL SEGREGATION



RANK
STATE
FEMALE POPULATION*
OCCUPATIONAL SEGREGATION INDEX*
#1


1,891,333
12.63%
#2


1,582,919
16.55%
#3


2,492,536
21.39%
#4


1,168,191
22.49%
#5


1,882,608
23.29%
#6


1,322,158
24.05%
#7


2,714,626
25.52%
#8


3,361,990
25.9%
#9


1,871,180
26.01%
#10


1,739,725
29%
#11


1,430,758
30.26%
#12


2,596,948
32.37%
#13


2,756,631
32.59%
#14


5,905,280
32.6%
#15


1,153,744
32.8%
#16


1,864,674
34.85%
#17


2,608,370
36.16%
#18


5,725,807
36.39%
#19


2,753,513
36.5%
#20


1,671,845
37.03%
#21


2,195,595
37.23%
#22


2,271,254
37.81%
#23


1,357,355
41.42%
#24


2,306,300
41.45%
#25


1,910,050
42.79%
#26


1,390,123
42.89%
#27


2,586,400
43.95%
#28


4,021,828
44.9%
#29


2,138,995
46%
#30


2,560,351
46.46%
#31


1,563,951
46.63%
#32


2,560,312
46.85%
#33


3,695,066
50.13%
#34


2,990,947
53.36%
#35


3,654,092
54.74%
#36


1,971,093
57.81%
#37


2,614,598
66.39%


* - 2015 Estimates



Source:
National Bureau of Statistics
The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program
Kingmakers.com.ng Calculations



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